Evolution of Swine Influenza Virus H3N2 in Vaccinated and Nonvaccinated Pigs after Previous Natural H1N1 Infection

Álvaro López-Valiñas, Laura Baioni, Lorena Córdoba, Ayub Darji, Chiara Chiapponi, Joaquim Segalés, Llilianne Ganges, José I. Núñez

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review


Swine influenza viruses (SIV) produce a highly contagious and worldwide distributed disease that can cause important economic losses to the pig industry. Currently, this virus is endemic in farms and, although used limitedly, trivalent vaccine application is the most extended strategy to control SIV. The presence of pre-existing immunity against SIV may modulate the evolutionary dynamic of this virus. To better understand these dynamics, the viral variants generated in vaccinated and nonvaccinated H3N2 challenged pigs after recovery from a natural A(H1N1) pdm09 infection were determined and analyzed. In total, seventeen whole SIV genomes were determined, 6 from vaccinated, and 10 from nonvaccinated animals and their inoculum, by NGS. Herein, 214 de novo substitutions were found along all SIV segments, 44 of them being nonsynonymous ones with an allele frequency greater than 5%. Nonsynonymous substitutions were not found in NP; meanwhile, many of these were allocated in PB2, PB1, and NS1 proteins. Regarding HA and NA proteins, higher nucleotide diversity, proportionally more nonsynonymous substitutions with an allele frequency greater than 5%, and different domain allocations of mutants, were observed in vaccinated animals, indicating different evolutionary dynamics. This study highlights the rapid adaptability of SIV in different environments.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2008
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 10 Sep 2022


  • Animals
  • Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/genetics
  • Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype/genetics
  • Influenza A virus
  • Nucleotides
  • Orthomyxoviridae Infections/prevention & control
  • Swine
  • Swine Diseases/epidemiology
  • hemagglutinin (HA)
  • neuraminidase (NA)
  • next-generation sequencing (NGS)
  • swine influenza virus
  • vaccine
  • viral evolution


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