ORF5 sequences of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) were analysed to determine genetic diversity, codon usage, positive and negative selection sites and potential changes in the predicted glycoprotein 5 (GP5). A hypothetical GP5 containing all selected sites was constructed to determine its characteristics. These sequences corresponded to isolates obtained 10 years apart (1991-1995, 18 strains) and a second set (n = 46) from 2000 to 2005. Similarity to Lelystad virus (LV) decreased from 95.5% in 1991-1995 to 89.5% in 2000-2005. Three highly variable regions were found in ORF5. Codon usage was different in both sets for leucine, glutamine, serine and proline. Thus, 2000-2005 sequences used codons more similar to those present in highly expressed pig genes compared to the 1991-1995 set. Twenty four sites of positive selection and 20 sites of negative selection were found in GP5, most of them in transmembrane regions. Additional glycosylation in N37 of GP5 was common in 2000-2005 but some sequences lack a glycosylation site in N46. The hypothetical GP5 was only 88.1% similar to LV and was less hydrophobic. Taking together these results suggest that PRRSV is still adapting to pig cells. © 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
- Codon usage
- Genetic diversity
- Porcine reproductive and respiratory virus