Routes of swine torque teno virus (TTV) transmission have been minimally investigated in the pig population. Current knowledge suggests the faecal-oral route as the most probable way of viral dissemination. Other transmission routes, such as mother-to-infant, have been studied in humans, but no information is available for swine. Thus, the objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence of two swine TTV genogroups, TTV1 and TTV2, in colostrum samples (n = 61) and sera samples from sows (n = 10) and stillborn pigs coming from them (n = 30). Colostrum was fractioned into two components, milk whey and cell pellets, and 26 out of 61 milk whey samples and 30 out of 58 cell pellets analyzed contained TTV1 or TTV2 genomes, respectively, detected by specific PCR methods. Six and 3 out of 10 serum samples from sows were positive for TTV1 and TTV2 DNA, respectively. Finally, 15 out of 30 sera from stillborns were PCR positive for TTV1, but only 2 were TTV2 positive. Positive stillborns were always infected with the same TTV genogroup as their mothers. However, TTV sequence analysis determined that sequences obtained from sows and their stillborns were not identical. In conclusion, our results indicated that swine TTVs can be transmitted vertically, and suggest that different sow-to-piglet transmission routes may coexist, including transplacental/intra-uterine as well as through lactation. This study represents the first description of swine TTV presence in colostrum and stillborn piglets. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
|Publication status||Published - 1 Jun 2009|
- Domestic pig
- Torque teno virus (TTV)
- Virus transmission