Invasion of natural habitats by conifer species is a well-known phenomenon worldwide. Here, we describe naturalization by the American Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas fir) in Montseny Natural Park (Catalonia, NE Spain). Establishment of seedlings started 15 years after plantation. Seedling density was positively associated to low tree density, small plantation area, grazing and the presence of a shrubland understorey of intermediate cover. Seedling recruitment outside the plantations occurred at high altitudes (>1000 m). In less than 30 years after plantation, P. menziesii invaded adjacent areas 100 m far from the plantation. We conclude that at high altitudes, under disturbance, seedling establishment can take place as soon as planted trees produce cones. Therefore, the time-lag appears to be primarily related to propagule availability. © 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
|Journal||Forest Ecology and Management|
|Publication status||Published - 20 Jun 2005|
- Alien plant
- Douglas fir
- Forest inventory
- Tree invasion