© 2016 Elsevier B.V. The information on the potential hazardous effects of gemfibrozil (GEM) on marine fish is extremely scarce. In the current study, molecular, endocrine and biochemical parameters were assessed in Sparus aurata after 96 h waterborne exposure to a GEM concentration range. Hepatic mRNA levels of target genes known to be regulated via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (pparα) in mammals, such as apolipoprotein AI (apoa1) and lipoprotein (lpl) were significantly increased, without a concomitant activation of the ppar pathways. GEM (15 μg L−1) induced an upregulation in mRNA levels of interleukin 1β (il1β), tumour necrosis factor-α (tnfα) and caspase 3 (casp3), suggesting an activation of proinflammatory processes in S. aurata liver. However, mRNA levels of genes related with the antioxidant defence system and cell-tissue repair were unaltered under the tested experimental conditions. Higher levels of GEM induced a cortisol rise, an indication that it is recognized as a stressor by S. aurata. Cortisol levels and the mRNA levels of il1β, tnfα and casp3 may be suggested as potential biomarkers of GEM effects in marine fish.
- Human pharmaceuticals
- Marine fish