Environmental cooperation: Ratifying second-best agreements

Pierre Courtois, Guillaume Haeringer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


As an alternative to the environmental cartel approach, we assume that an international environmental agreement aims simply at providing a collective response to a perceived threat. Given this less demanding concept of cooperation and considering that most treaties become enforceable only after ratification by a sufficient number of participants, we examine the set of self-enforceable agreements. This set contains first-best but also second-best agreements that do not maximize the collective welfare of members but meet environmental and/or participative requirements. We study the properties of this set and discuss admissible values of targets and thresholds that favour economics over environmental objectives and vice versa. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)565-584
JournalPublic Choice
Issue number3-4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2012


  • Abatement bound
  • International environmental agreement
  • Ratification threshold
  • Self-enforcement
  • Social welfare


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