Enthusiasts, fans and spectators: Their moral values, motivations and commitment

Miquel Torregrosa, Jaume Cruz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


The interest of sport sciences in spectators and sport as a spectacle has been scarce and oftentimes centred on violence. The aim of this study is to propose an alternative classification of football fans departing from the type of contact that they have with football and to describe their values, motivations, and commitment. A total of 1719 people attending football matches organized by the Liga de Fútbol Profesional (Spanish Premiere League) completed questionnaires about their values, motivation, and their relationship to football. Results show that enthusiasts are the most motivated and committed football fans and at the same time follow more conservative and self-promotional values than the other three categories (spectators, live fans, and virtual fans). The classification that is proposed based on the type of contact with football allows for the conceptualization of football as something more than what happens at the stadium and opens the doors to interventions from a positive standpoint promoting fair play and sportsmanship with football fans.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)149-157
JournalCultura, Ciencia y Deporte
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2009


  • Motivation
  • Soccer
  • Sport commitment
  • Sport fans
  • Values


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