Enriched puree potato with soy protein for dysphagia patients by using 3D printing

Farnaz Mirazimi, Jordi Saldo*, Francesc Sepulcre, Alvar Gràcia, Montserrat Pujolà

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Working paperPreprint


Dysphagia is affecting a person’s ability to swallow, and it causes health issues problems by directly limiting nutritional intake, being the elderly the most at-risk group, also likely to be deficient in nutrition. Diets for patients suffering from dysphagia require textural modifications to offer soft and safe to swallow food. Puree is easily consumed by the elderly, being an alternative food preparation providing essential nutrition for people with dysphagia. In this study, we aimed to create different formulations with soy protein and agar added to potato puree to add nutritional value and end up with printable material by designing food for elderly and dysphagia-suffering people. Some enriched potato puree formulations were obtained by adding soy protein (3%, 5%, and 7 %) and up to 0.2% agar. The use of three-dimensional food printing allows visual customization with appeal benefits of nutritional designed formulations for specific consumers. The rheology and texture profile analysis of the different formulations has been examined. According to IDDSI scales, the texture of all modified samples was suitable for people with swallowing difficulties. Whereas the samples with agar presented a better-printed shape and a more viscous-like behavior than the samples simply with soy protein. These findings highlight that soy protein could modify the texture and, from the nutritional point of view, add value to the formulations. The addition of 0.2% agar can establish good material for designing 3D printed food that allow the creation of textures in accordance with the needs of the elderly and people with dysphagia.
Original languageEnglish
Publication statusPublished - 26 Apr 2022

Publication series

NameFood Frontiers
ISSN (Print)2643-8429


  • Texture modified
  • Viscosity
  • Thixotropy
  • TPA
  • Yield stress


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