En busca de la analoǵia perdida: una etnoarqueoloǵia experimental para las normas sociales en sociedades cazadoras-recolectoras

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Abstract

Hunter-gatherer societies have been studied from multiple perspectives. This article performs an approximation following the theoretical framework of historical materialism, focusing on the socalled “Experimental Ethnoarchaeology”. Different ethnoarchaeological studies in Tierra del Fuego (Argentina) have been carried out during the last decades aiming to test and develop archaeolo-gical methodology. The basic assumption of these projects was that the main limits of our knowledge in prehistory are in the methodology and not in the archaeological record itself. Actually, an accurate analysis of the extensive ethnographic information shows how in hunter-gatherer societies social norms (e. g sexual division of labour) could materialize in ideological items, in the funerary record, or structuring different social spaces.In this paper, first, we present a synthesis of the published results in the framework of this “Experimental Ethnoarchaeology” in Tierra del Fuego. Secondly, an analytical review of Túnel VII and Lanashuaia sites, two ethnohistoric shell middens excavated between 1989 and 2005, is presented. Both sites have been interpreted as two huts of the Yamana indigenous group. However, the preliminary results of a comparative analysis of the spatial distribution of production and consumption waste and debris of these sites point out differences in their site-func-tion and duration. The ethnographic information about this particular society allows to contrast those hypotheses. In the light of these results, discussion raises the need to test the explanatory potential of intra-site analysis. Fur-thermore, some fundamental lines for an archaeological approximation to the social norms in hunter-gatherer societies are proposed, by means of combining intra-site analysis with other important sources of ethnographic and archaeological information like mortuary contexts. The ultimate aim of this research is to develop an appropriate archaeological methodology in order to analyse the Upper Palaeolithic and Mesolithic European record.
Original languageSpanish
Title of host publicationActas de las IX Jornadas de Jóvenes en Investigación Arqueológica
Subtitle of host publicationSantander 8-11 junio 2016
EditorsLucía Agudo Pérez, Carlos Duarte, Asier García-Escárzaga, Jeanne Marie Geiling, Antonio Higuero Pliego, Sara Núñez de la Fuente, Francisco Javier Rodríguez Santos, Roberto Suárez Revilla
Place of PublicationSantander
PublisherUniversidad de Cantabria / Instituto Internacional de Investigaciones Prehistóricas de Cantabria
Pages97-106
ISBN (Print)978-84-697-9482-1
Publication statusPublished - 2018

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