Of the several hundred examples of transition metal dihydrogen complexes that have been reported to date, the vast majority have H-H distances of less than 1.0 Å. A small number of complexes have been reported with distances in the range of 1.1 to 1.5 Å. These complexes have been termed elongated dihydrogen complexes. In this review, experimental methods for structure determination of such complexes are summarized, along with computational approaches which have proven useful in understanding the structures of these molecules. © 2004 Royal Society of Chemistry.