Electronic tongue for nitro and peroxide explosive sensing

Andreu González-Calabuig, Xavier Cetó, Manel Del Valle

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


© 2016 Elsevier B.V.All rights reserved. This work reports the application of a voltammetric electronic tongue (ET) towards the simultaneous determination of both nitro-containing and peroxide-based explosive compounds, two families that represent the vast majority of compounds employed either in commercial mixtures or in improvised explosive devices. The multielectrode array was formed by graphite, gold and platinum electrodes, which exhibited marked mix-responses towards the compounds examined; namely, 1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), N-methyl-N,2,4,6-tetranitroaniline (Tetryl) and triacetone triperoxide (TATP). Departure information was the set of voltammograms, which were first analyzed by means of principal component analysis (PCA) allowing the discrimination of the different individual compounds, while artificial neural networks (ANNs) were used for the resolution and individual quantification of some of their mixtures (total normalized root mean square error for the external test set of 0.108 and correlation of the obtained vs. expected concentrations comparison graphs r>0.929).
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)340-346
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2016


  • Artificial neural network
  • Electronic tongue
  • Explosives
  • TATP
  • TNT
  • Voltammetric sensor


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