Purpose of review: The occurrence in blood of an electronegatively charged LDL was described in 1988. During the 1990s reports studying electronegative LDL (LDL(-)) were scant and its atherogenic role controversial. Nevertheless, recent reports have provided new evidence on a putative atherogenic role of LDL(-). This review focuses on and discusses these new findings. Recent findings: In recent years, LDL(-) has been found to be involved in several atherogenic features through its action on cultured endothelial cells. LDL(-) induces the production of chemokines, such as IL-8 and monocyte chemotactic protein 1, and increases tumor necrosis factor-α-induced production of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, with these molecules being involved in early phases of leukocyte recruitment. LDL(-) from familial hypercholesterolemic patients also decreases DNA synthesis and intracellular fibroblast growth factor 2 production, which may contribute to impaired angiogenesis and increased apoptosis. In addition, the preferential association of platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase with LDL(-) has been reported, suggesting a proinflammatory role of this enzyme in LDL(-). Summary: Recent findings suggest that LDL(-) could contribute to atherogenesis via several mechanisms, including proinflammatory, proapoptotic and antiangiogenesis properties. Further studies are required to define the role of LDL(-) in atherogenesis more precisely and to clarify mechanisms involved in endothelial cell activation. © 2004 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
- Electronegative LDL
- Endothelial cells