Electronegative LDL induces MMP-9 and TIMP-1 release in monocytes through CD14 activation: Inhibitory effect of glycosaminoglycan sulodexide

Daniela Ligi, Sonia Benitez, Lidia Croce, Andrea Rivas-Urbina, Núria Puig, Jordi Ordóñez-Llanos, Ferdinando Mannello, Jose Luis Sanchez-Quesada

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearch

11 Citations (Scopus)


© 2018 Objective: Electronegative LDL (LDL(−)) is involved in atherosclerosis through the activation of the TLR4/CD14 inflammatory pathway in monocytes. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and their inhibitors (tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase [TIMP]) are also crucially involved in atherosclerosis, but their modulation by LDL(−) has never been investigated. The aim of this study was to examine the ability of LDL(−) to release MMPs and TIMPs in human monocytes and to determine whether sulodexide (SDX), a glycosaminoglycan-based drug, was able to affect their secretion. Approach and results: Native LDL (LDL(+)) and LDL(−) separated by anion-exchange chromatography were added to THP1-CD14 monocytes in the presence or absence of SDX for 24 h. A panel of 9 MMPs and 4 TIMPs was analyzed in cell supernatants with multiplex immunoassays. The gelatinolytic activity of MMP-9 was assessed by gelatin zymography. LDL(−) stimulated the release of MMP-9 (13-fold) and TIMP-1 (4-fold) in THP1-CD14 monocytes, as well as the gelatinolytic activity of MMP-9. Co-incubation of monocytes with LDL(−) and SDX for 24 h significantly reduced both the release of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 and gelatinase activity. In THP1 cells not expressing CD14, no effect of LDL(−) on MMP-9 or TIMP-1 release was observed. The uptake of DiI-labeled LDL(−) was higher than that of DiI-LDL(+) in THP1-CD14 but not in THP1 cells. This increase was inhibited by SDX. Experiments in microtiter wells coated with SDX demonstrated a specific interaction of LDL(−) with SDX. Conclusions: LDL(−) induced the release of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 in monocytes through CD14. SDX affects the ability of LDL(−) to promote TIMP-1 and MMP-9 release by its interaction with LDL(−).
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3559-3567
JournalBiochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular Basis of Disease
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2018


  • Atherosclerosis
  • Electronegative LDL
  • Glycosaminoglycan
  • Matrix metalloproteinase
  • Sulodexide
  • Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase


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