Electronegative LDL: An active player in atherogenesis or a by-product of atherosclerosis?

Andrea Rivas-Urbina, Anna Rull, Jordi Ordóñez-Llanos, José Luis Sánchez-Quesada

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleResearchpeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


© 2019 Bentham Science Publishers. Low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) are the major plasma carriers of cholesterol. However, LDL particles must undergo various molecular modifications to promote the development of atherosclerotic lesions. Modified LDL can be generated by different mechanisms, but as a common trait, show an increased electronegative charge of the LDL particle. A subfraction of LDL with increased electronegative charge (LDL(-)), which can be isolated from blood, exhibits several pro-atherogenic characteristics. LDL(-) is heterogeneous, due to its multiple origins but is strongly related to the development of atherosclerosis. Nevertheless, the implication of LDL(-) in a broad array of pathologic conditions is complex and in some cases anti-atherogenic LDL(-) properties have been reported. In fact, several molecular modifications generating LDL(-) have been widely studied, but it remains unknown as to whether these different mechanisms are specific or common to different pathological disorders. In this review, we attempt to address these issues examining the most recent findings on the biology of LDL(-) and discussing the relationship between this LDL subfraction and the development of different diseases with increased cardiovascular risk. Finally, the review highlights the importance of minor apolipoproteins associated with LDL(-) which would play a crucial role in the different properties displayed by these modified LDL particles.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1665-1679
JournalCurrent Medicinal Chemistry
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2019


  • Apoptosis
  • Atherosclerosis
  • Electronegative LDL
  • Inflammation
  • L5
  • LDL modification
  • Lipoprotein aggregation


Dive into the research topics of 'Electronegative LDL: An active player in atherogenesis or a by-product of atherosclerosis?'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this