Electronegative low density lipoprotein (LDL(-)) is a minor modified fraction of LDL found in blood. It comprises a heterogeneous population of LDL particles modified by various mechanisms sharing as a common feature increased electronegativity. Modification by oxidation is one of these mechanisms. LDL(-) has inflammatory properties similar to those of oxidized LDL (oxLDL), such as inflammatory cytokine release in leukocytes and endothelial cells. However, in contrast with oxLDL, LDL(-) also has some anti-inflammatory effects on cultured cells. The inflammatory and anti-inflammatory properties ascribed to LDL(-) suggest that it could have a dual biological effect. © 2013 Montserrat Estruch et al.