Electrolyte-gated magnetoelectric actuation: Phenomenology, materials, mechanisms, and prospective applications

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© 2019 Author(s). Manipulation of the magnetic behavior of materials with voltage (i.e., magnetoelectric actuation) has become a topic of intense research during the last years. Apart from its obvious interest from a basic science standpoint, control and eventual switching of the magnetization without applying any external magnetic field (or spin polarized current) has the potential to drastically reduce the power consumption of magnetic devices due to the lack (or minimization) of Joule heating dissipation effects. Herein, an overview of the state-of-the-art of electrolyte-gated magnetoelectric actuation (where an electric field is applied using an electrolyte, either liquid or solid) is provided. The different types of mechanisms responsible for voltage-driven magnetic actuation (surface charging, ionic migration, also termed "magneto-ionics," reduction/oxidation reactions, and ferroelectric/ferromagnetic coupling) are summarized. The various effects (changes in coercivity, anisotropy easy axis, exchange bias field, saturation magnetization, Curie temperature, etc.) observed in the different types of materials investigated so far (mainly metallic thin films and semiconductors, porous alloys, and nanocomposite structures) are described. The potential applications of electrolyte-gated magnetoelectric actuation in devices as well as the current challenges in the field are also reviewed with the aim of providing the basic ingredients for further prospects and technological advancements in this area.
Original languageEnglish
Article number030701
JournalAPL Materials
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2019


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