© 2017 by the authors. Bismuth (Bi) electrodeposition was studied on Si/Ti/Au, FTO-, and ITO-coated glasses from acidic nitrate solutions with and without gluconate within a narrow potential window (ΔE = 80 mV). This potential range was sufficient to observe a change in particle shape, from polyhedrons (including hexagons) to dendrites, the trend being slightly different depending on substrate activity. In all cases, though, the formation of dendrites was favoured as the applied potential was made more negative. Bi particles were more uniformly distributed over the substrate when sodium gluconate was added to the electrolyte. X-ray diffraction analyses of dendrites grown at -0.28 V indicated that they exhibit the rhombohedral phase of Bi and are predominantly oriented along the (003) plane. This orientation is exacerbated at the lowest applied potential (-0.20 V vs. Ag|AgCl) on glass/ITO substrate, for which completed and truncated hexagons are observed from the top view scanning electron microscopy images.
- X-ray diffraction