This review discusses main techniques and methods which use nanoscale materials for construction of electrochemical biosensors. Described approaches include nanotube and nanoparticle-based electrodes relying on aligned nanotube arrays, direct electron transfer between biomolecule and electrode, novel binding materials and mass production technology; and nanoscale materials as biomolecule tracers, including gold nanoparticles, quantum dots for DNA and protein multiplexing, novel nanobiolabels as apoferritin, liposomes and enzyme tags loaded carbon nanotubes. Specific issues related to electrochemistry of nanoscale materials are discussed. Various applications for genomic and proteomic analysis are described. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
- Carbon nanotube