Electrochemical magneto immunosensing of antibiotic residues in milk

E. Zacco, J. Adrian, R. Galve, M. P. Marco, S. Alegret, M. I. Pividori

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114 Citations (Scopus)


A novel electrochemical immunosensing strategy for the detection of sulfonamide antibiotics in milk based on magnetic beads is presented. Among the different strategies for immobilizing the class-specific anti-sulfonamide antibody to the magnetic beads - such as those based on the use of Protein A or carboxylate modified magnetic beads -,the best strategy was found to be the covalent bonding on tosyl-activated magnetic beads. The immunological reaction for the detection of sulfonamide antibiotics performed on the magnetic bead is based on a direct competitive assay using a tracer with HRP peroxidase for the enzymatic labelling. After the immunochemical reactions, the modified magnetic beads can be easily captured by a magneto sensor made of graphite-epoxy composite (m-GEC), which is also used as the transducer for the electrochemical immunosensing. The electrochemical detection is thus achieved through a suitable substrate for the enzyme HRP and an electrochemical mediator. The electrochemical approach is also compared with a novel magneto-ELISA with optical detection. The performance of the electrochemical immunosensing strategy based on magnetic beads was successfully evaluated using spiked milk samples, and the detection limit was found to be 1.44 μg L-1 (5.92 nmol L-1) for raw full cream milk. This strategy offers great promise for rapid, simple, cost-effective and on-site analysis of biological, food and environmental samples. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2184-2191
JournalBiosensors and Bioelectronics
Issue number9-10
Publication statusPublished - 15 Apr 2007


  • Competitive immunoassay
  • Electrochemical immunosensor
  • Magnetic beads
  • Milk samples
  • Sulfonamide


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