Electrochemical detection of fluoroquinolone antibiotics in milk using a magneto immunosensor

Daniel G. Pinacho, Francisco Sánchez-Baeza, María Isabel Pividori, María Pilar Marco

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

29 Citations (Scopus)


An amperometric magneto-immunosensor (AMIS) for the detection of residues of fluoroquinolone antibiotics in milk samples is described for the first time. The immunosensor presented combines magnetic beads biomodified with an antibody with a broad recognition profile of fluoroquinolones, a haptenized enzyme and a magnetic graphite-epoxy composite (m-GEC) electrode. After the immunochemical reaction with specific enzyme tracer, the antibody biomodified magnetic beads are easily captured by an electrode made of graphite-epoxy composite containing a magnet, which also acts as transducer for the electrochemical detection. In spite of the complexity of milk, the use of magnetic beads allows elimination of potential interferences caused by the matrix components; hence the AMIS could perform quantitative measurements, directly in these samples, without any additional sample cleanup or extraction step. The immunosensor is able to detect up to seven different fluoroquinolones far below the MRLs defined by the UE for milk; for example ciprofloxacin is detected directly in milk with an IC50 of 0.74 μg/L and a LOD of 0.009 μg/L. This strategy offers great promise for rapid, simple, cost-effective, and on-site analysis fluoroquinolones in complex samples. © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)15965-15980
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 28 Aug 2014


  • Antimicrobial residues
  • Electrochemical immunosensor
  • Fluoroquinolone antibiotics
  • Food safety
  • Magnetic beads
  • Milk


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