This paper describes the improvement in the use of electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) for animal cell concentration monitoring of adherent cultures by using a four-electrode configuration instead of the commonly used two-electrode configuration. This four-electrode configuration prevents cell concentration measurements from external masking effects such as the electrode covering ratio, the degree of cellular adherence to the electrodes and the impedance of the measuring electrodes. Cell concentration was monitored using both four-electrode and two-electrode configurations in vero cell and human mesenchymal stem cell cultures in order to analyze the attained improvement in two cell lines with opposite growth characteristics. The experiments performed with vero cell cultures evidenced that the four-electrode configuration enables cell concentration measurements along all culture phases, even once the culture reached cell confluence (over 2×10 5cells/cm 2), confirming that this configuration is less effected by all the external influences. The experiments performed with human mesenchymal stem cells demonstrated good sensitivity of the measurement at very low cell concentrations, as well as a very good robustness all over the 12-days experiment. Finally, off-line cell measurements during cell cultures proved good accuracy of impedance measurements carried out with a four-electrode configuration along all cell growth phases, enabling determination of relevant cell growth parameters. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
|Journal||Biosensors and Bioelectronics|
|Publication status||Published - 15 Jan 2012|
- Adherent cell culture
- Cell concentration monitoring
- Electrical impedance spectroscopy