Electrical characterization and modeling of pulse-based forming techniques in RRAM arrays

Alessandro Grossi, Cristian Zambelli, Piero Olivo, Enrique Miranda, Valeriy Stikanov, Christian Walczyk, Christian Wenger

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43 Citations (Scopus)


© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. The forming process, which corresponds to the activation of the switching filament in Resistive Random Access Memory (RRAM) arrays, has a strong impact on the cells' performances. In this paper we characterize and compare different pulse forming techniques in terms of forming time, yield and cell-to-cell variability on 4 kbits RRAM arrays. Moreover, post-forming modeling during Reset operation of correctly working and over formed cells has been performed. An incremental form and verify technique, based on a sequence of trapezoidal waveforms with increasing voltages followed by a verify operation that terminates when the expected switching behavior has been achieved, showed the best results. This procedure narrows the post-forming current distribution whereas reducing the Reset switching voltage and the operative current. These advantages materialize in a better control of the cell-to-cell variability and in an overall time and energy saving at the system level.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)17-25
JournalSolid-State Electronics
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2016


  • Energy saving
  • Forming
  • Read window
  • RRAM array


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