Efficacy of parenteral vaccination against tuberculosis with heat-inactivated Mycobacterium bovis in experimentally challenged goats
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© 2018 Arrieta-Villegas et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Tuberculosis (TB) in animals is a re-emerging disease with a wide range of hosts that causes large economic losses in livestock. Goats are particularly susceptible to TB and, in endemic areas, vaccination may be a valuable measure to control the disease. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of parenteral vaccination of goats with a heat-inactivated Mycobacterium bovis (HIMB) vaccine, and compare it to M. bovis Bacille Calm-ette–Guérin (BCG) vaccine. Twenty-four goat kids were divided in 3 groups as following: HIMB vaccinated group (n = 8), BCG vaccinated group (n = 8) and unvaccinated group (n = 8). Afterwards, goats were experimentally challenged with Mycobacterium caprae by the endobronchial route. Antigen specific interferon-γ release assays and serology were performed after vaccination and challenge. Pathological and bacteriological parameters were evaluated after necropsy at 9 weeks post-challenge (p.c.). HIMB vaccine showed similar levels of protection to BCG in terms of volume reduction of thoracic TB lesions, presence of extra-pulmonary lesions, as well as a slight reduction of bacterial load in pulmonary lymph nodes. Moreover, HIMB vaccine did not induce interferences on the interferon-γ release assay based on reagents previously developed to differentiate infected from BCG vaccinated individuals. The results indicate that HIMB is a suitable vaccine candidate for further larger-scale trials under field conditions in goats.