© 2015 Elsevier Inc. Stress tolerance can be induced in embryos by oocyte exposure to hydrostatic pressure, osmotic agents, heat shock, or reactive oxygen species. This study assessed the effects of exposing bovine oocytes to a nitric oxide (NO) donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), on subsequent in vitro embryo production, embryo quality and the expression of genes involved in NO production (iNOS, eNOS, and nNOS), stress tolerance (HSP70 and HSP90), oxidative stress (HIF1A and PRDX5), and apoptosis (BCL2A1). In vitro mature oocytes were incubated with SNP (control, 10-6M, 10-5M, and 10-4M) for 1 hour before in vitro fertilization, and cultured until Day 7. Cleavage and blastocyst rates were recorded. Next, embryo quality (ratio of inner cell mass to total cell number) and relative gene expression of iNOS, eNOS, nNOS, HSP70, HSP90, HIF1A, PRDX5, and BCL2A1 were determined in expanded blastocysts. Cleavage rates were significantly lower for 10-4M SNP compared with the control and 10-5M SNP treatments (77 ± 7.1%, 82 ± 8.4%, and 84.9 ± 4.1%, respectively). Total blastocyst rates were lower in the 10-4M SNP group relative to the control group (26.2 ± 4.9% and 34.1 ± 7.8%, respectively). Embryo quality was similar among the groups. However, our relative gene expression analysis revealed the downregulation of endothelial oxide nitric synthase messenger RNA in expanded blastocysts in all the treatment groups compared with the control treatment. These results suggest that the short-term exposure of mature bovine oocytes to a NO donor does not induce their stress tolerance and has no beneficial effect on the in vitro embryo production of bovine embryos.
|Publication status||Published - 1 Jan 2015|
- Embryo quality
- Gene expression
- Nitric oxide
- Stress tolerance