Effects of sedation with midazolam and butorphanol on resistive and pulsatility indices in healthy dogs

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Resistive index (RI) and pulsatility index (PI) are indirect measurements of blood flow resistance that may be measured by pulsed wave Doppler ultrasonography. Chemical restrain may potentially alter the indices although it is required to perform ultrasonography in some patients. The purpose of this study was to describe values for both intrarenal and ocular RI and PI within the same subject in clinically normal dogs sedated with a midazolam and butorphanol combination and evaluate if there are any significant changes between sedated and nonsedated dogs. Fifteen healthy Beagle dogs were studied by Duplex Doppler interrogation in interlobar or arcuate arteries of the kidney and long posterior ciliary artery. Pulse rate and systolic blood pressure were also determined. All measurements were recorded before and after the administration of a sedative combination of midazolam (0.2mg/kg) and butorphanol (0.2mg/kg). Mean comparison tests (paired t-tests or Wilcoxon's rank-sum test) were used to determine if any significant differences existed between right and left renal values or right and left ocular values. A correlation study (Pearson or Spearman) was applied between RI, PI, and systolic pressure, and pulse rate. RI and PI were significantly higher in sedated Beagles than in unsedated Beagles. There was neither correlation between index and systolic blood pressure nor pulse rate. In conclusion, provided that normal RI and PI increase in sedated animals, then reference ranges should be higher when sedated - healthy or ill - animals are evaluated.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)276-280
JournalVeterinary Radiology and Ultrasound
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2007


  • Dog
  • Doppler ultrasonography
  • Pulsatility index
  • Resistive index
  • Sedation


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