Eight dual-flow continuous culture fermenters were used in four consecutive periods of 10 d to study the effects of six natural plant extracts on ruminal protein degradation and fermentation profiles. Fermenters were fed a diet with a 52:48 forage:concentrate ratio (DM basis). Treatments were no extract (CTR), 15 mg/kg DM of a mixture of equal proportions of all extracts (MIX), and 7.5 mg/kg DM of extracts of garlic (GAR), cinnamon (CIN), yucca (YUC), anise (ANI), oregano (ORE), or pepper (PEP). During the adaptation period (d 1 through 8), samples for ammonia N and VFA concentrations were taken 2 h after feeding. On d 9 and 10, samples for VFA (2 h after feeding), and peptide, AA, and ammonia N concentrations (0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 h after feeding) were also taken. Differences were declared at P < 0.05. During the adaptation period, total VFA and ammonia N concentrations were not affected by treatments. The acetate proportion was higher from d 2 to 6 in CIN, GAR, ANI, and ORE, and the propionate proportion was lower from d 2 to 4 in CIN and GAR, and from d 2 to 5 in ANI and ORE, compared with CTR. However, the proportion of individual VFA (mol/100 mol) was similar in all treatments after d 6, except for valerate in d 9 and 10, which was lower in PEP (2.8 ± 0.27) compared with CTR (3.5 ± 0.27). The average peptide N concentration was 31% higher in MIX, and 26% higher in CIN and YUC compared with CTR (6.5 ± 1.07 mg/100 mL). The average AA N concentration was 17 and 15% higher in GAR and ANI, respectively, compared with CTR (7.2 ± 0.77 mg/100 mL). The average ammonia N concentration was 31% higher in ANI and 25.5% lower in GAR compared with CTR (5.5 ± 0.51 mg/100 mL). The accumulation of AA and ammonia N in ANI suggested that peptidolysis and deamination were stimulated. The accumulation of AA N and the decrease in ammonia N in GAR suggests that deamination was inhibited. The accumulation of peptide N and the numerical decrease in AA N in CIN suggest that peptidolysis was inhibited. Results indicate that plant extracts modified ruminal fermentation, but microbes were adapted to some extracts after 6 d of fermentation. Therefore, data from short-term in vitro fermentation studies may lead to erroneous conclusions, and should be interpreted with caution. Careful selection of these additives may allow the manipulation of protein degradation in the rumen. © 2004 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.
|Journal||Journal of Animal Science|
|Publication status||Published - 1 Nov 2004|
- Plant Extract
- Protein Degradation
- Ruminal Fermentation