© 2018 Cambridge University Press. Suitable fertilization is crucial for the sustainability of rice production and for the potential mitigation of global warming. The effects of fertilization on porewater nutrients and greenhouse-gas fluxes in cropland, however, remain poorly known. We studied the effects of no fertilization (control), standard fertilization and double fertilization on the concentrations of porewater nutrients, greenhouse-gas fluxes and emissions, and rice yield in a subtropical paddy in southeastern China. Double fertilization increased dissolved NH4+ in porewater. Mean CO2 and CH4 emissions were 13.5% and 7.4%, and 20.4% and 39.5% higher for the standard and double fertilizations, respectively, than the control. N2O depositions in soils were 61% and 101% higher for the standard and double fertilizations, respectively, than the control. The total global warming potentials (GWPs) for all emissions were 14.1% and 10.8% higher for the standard and double fertilizations, respectively than the control, with increasing contribution of CH4 with fertilization and a CO2 contribution > 85%. The total GWPs per unit yield were significantly higher for the standard and double fertilizations than the control by 7.3% and 10.9%, respectively. The two levels of fertilization did not significantly increase rice yield. Prior long-term fertilization in the paddy (about 20 years with annual doses of 95 kg N ha-1, 70 kg P2O5 ha-1 and 70 kg K2O ha-1) might have prevented these fertilizations from increasing the yield. However, fertilizations increased greenhouse-gas emissions. This situation is common in paddy fields in subtropical China, suggesting a saturation of soil nutrients and the necessity to review current fertilization management. These areas likely suffer from unnecessary nutrient leaching and excessive greenhouse-gas emissions. These results provide a scientific basis for continued research to identify an easy and optimal fertilization management solution.