© 2018 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. Background: Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and electrocautery ablation (ECA) are 2 of the main treatment options for anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL). Our aim was to compare the efficacy and tolerance of TCA vs. ECA for HSIL. Methods: Retrospective uncontrolled study of HIV-infected men who have sex with men who had an anal HSIL treated with TCA or ECA. On-treatment effectiveness was evaluated at 6-8 weeks after treatment. A complete response was defined as resolution of HSIL, a partial response as regression to low-grade lesion, and recurrence as biopsy-proven HSIL during follow-up. A propensity-score analysis was used to adjust efficacy to potential confounding. Results: From May 2009 to March 2018, 182 and 56 cases of anal HSIL were treated with ECA and TCA, respectively. Comparing ECA with TCA, a complete response was observed in 33.5% (95% confidence interval: 25.8 to 41.6) vs. 60.7% (50.0 to 74.8) and a partial response in 28.0% (20.3 to 36.0) vs. 23.2% (12.5 to 37.3), respectively (P, 0.001). These differences were maintained in the propensity-score analyses. Side effects were common in both treatment, but tolerance was reported as good in 80.6% (74.2 to 89.2) and 82.6% (73.9 to 93.9) of cases treated with ECA and TCA, respectively, and no serious events were described. Recurrence cumulative incidence for the first 12 months was 14.6% (9.1 to 23.1) for ECA episodes and 27.6% (11.5 to 57.7) for TCA (P = 0.183). Conclusions: Our study showed a higher efficacy of TCA than ECA with similar rates of side effects. In our opinion, considering the benefits of TCA, it should be considered as a first-line therapy for most anal HSIL management.
- Electrocautery ablation
- High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion
- Human immunodeficiency virus
- Human papillomavirus infection
- Men who have sex with men
- Trichloroacetic acid