Effectiveness of primary healthcare educational interventions undertaken by nurses to improve chronic disease management in patients with diabetes mellitus, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia: A systematic review

Marta Gorina, Joaquín T. Limonero, María Álvarez

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleResearchpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

© 2018 Elsevier Ltd Background: Diabetes, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia are important chronic health problems that are becoming increasingly frequent worldwide. Educational interventions are a challenge for health teams. Nurses play a major role in overall health by providing educational interventions to help improve self-management outcomes. Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of primary health care educational interventions undertaken by nurses to improve metabolic control and/or chronic disease management in individuals with Type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia. Methods: The methodology drew on systematic review without meta-analyses, methods developed by the Cochrane Collaboration. Elements related to content were chosen following the PRISMA statement. The databases of Pubmed, Web of Science, CINAHL, PsycInfo, Cuiden, Enfispo, and the Cochrane Library were consulted. Reference lists from relevant articles were also examined for additional references. Three authors independently assessed eligibility of studies for inclusion. A review of randomised controlled trials published between 2000 and 2015 was undertaken. Furthermore, an analysis of selected studies was carried out, in which nurses actively participated in the implementation of educational interventions in primary health care centres in order to improve control and chronic disease management in Type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. Results: Out of the 20 studies included in the systematic review, one had a low risk of bias, 14 an uncertain risk of bias, and five a high risk of bias. Although several studies showed significant changes in the measured variables, few significant differences were maintained over time, observed only in metabolic indicators and clinical variables more than in lifestyle behaviour. In addition, although most of the studies dealt with issues related to lifestyle behaviours such as nutrition, physical activity, and tobacco and alcohol use, few measured changes after the intervention. Finally, the difficulty in comparing the studies included in the review laid in the heterogeneity in educational strategies, the evaluation methods used, and the disparity of assessment tools, which made it difficult to establish the characteristics of the most effective interventions during the time of treatment for diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia. Conclusions: Although there are numerous interventions that aim to control diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia, the observation was that the results obtained are difficult to maintain over time. Therefore, it is necessary to continue to create high-quality interventions, with a low risk of bias and based on solid theoretical frameworks, not only to treat current symptoms of the disease but also to help prevent cardiovascular disease.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)139-150
JournalInternational Journal of Nursing Studies
Volume86
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2018

Keywords

  • Chronic disease
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Educational intervention
  • Hypercholesterolemia
  • Hypertension
  • Literature review
  • Nursing
  • Primary health care

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