A prospective observational study evaluated the effectiveness of combining antibiotic-lock therapy and systemic antibiotics for Gram-negative bacilli long-term catheter-related bacteremia. In 46 uncomplicated episodes, the most frequently isolated microorganisms were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (15), Enterobacter cloacae (12), Escherichia coli (10), and Klebsiella spp. (8). Cure was achieved in 95% of cases. © 2011 The Author.