Effect of physical exercise on lipoprotein(a) and low-density lipoprotein modifications in type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients

M. Rigla, J. L. Sanchez-Quesada, J. Ordonez-Llanos, T. Prat, A. Caixas, O. Jorba, J. R. Serra, A. De Leiva, A. Perez

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Abstract

To evaluate the effect of physical exercise on blood pressure, the lipid profile, lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) modifications in untrained diabetics, 27 diabetic patients (14 type 1 and 13 type 2) under acceptable and stable glycemic control were studied before and after a supervised 3-month physical exercise program. Anthropometric parameters, insulin requirements, blood pressure, the lipid profile, Lp(a), LDL composition, size, and susceptibility to oxidation, and the proportion of electronegative LDL (LDL(-)) were measured. After 3 months of physical exercise, physical fitness improved (maximal O2 consumption [Vo(2max)], 29.6 ± 6.8 v 33.0 ± 8.4 mL/kg/min, P <. 01). The body mass index (BMI) did not change, but the waist circumference (83.2 ± 11.8 to 81.4 ± 11.2 cm, P<. 05) decreased significantly. An increase in the subscapular to triceps skinfold ratio (0.91 ± 0.37 v 1.12 ± 0.47 cm, P <. 01) and midarm muscle circumference ([MMC], 23.1 ± 3.4 v 24.4 ± 3.7 cm, P <. 001) were observed after exercise. Insulin requirements (0.40 ± 0.18 v 0.31 ± 0.19 U/kg/d, P <. 05) and diastolic blood pressure (80.2 ± 10 v 73.8 ± 5 mm Hg, P <. 01) decreased in type 2 diabetic patients. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) increased in type 1 patients (1.48 ± 0.45 v 1.66 ± 0.6 mmol/L, P <. 05), while LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) decreased in type 2 patients (3.6 ± 1.0 v 3.4 ± 0.9 mmol/L, P <. 01). Although Lp(a) levels did not vary in the whole group, a significant decrease was noted in patients with baseline Lp(a) above 300 mg/L (mean decrease, -13%). A relationship between baseline Lp(a) and the change in Lp(a) (r = -.718, P <. 0001) was also observed. After the exercise program, 3 of 4 patients with LDL phenotype B changed to LDL phenotype A, and the proportion of LDL(-) tended to decrease (16.5% ± 7.4% v 14.0% ± 5.1%, P =. 06). No changes were observed for LDL composition or susceptibility to oxidation. In addition to its known beneficial effects on the classic cardiovascular risk factors, regular physical exercise may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in diabetic patients by reducing Lp(a) levels in those with elevated Lp(a) and producing favorable qualitative LDL modifications. © 2000 by W.B. Saunders Company.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)640-647
JournalMetabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Volume49
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2000

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