Effect of milk thistle on the pharmacokinetics of darunavir-ritonavir in HIV-infected patients

José Moltó, Marta Valle, Cristina Miranda, Samandhy Cedeño, Eugenia Negredo, Bonaventura Clotet

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14 Citations (Scopus)


The aim of this open-label, fixed-sequence study was to investigate the potential of the botanical supplement milk thistle (silymarin) to interact with the boosted protease inhibitor combination darunavir-ritonavir. Fifteen HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy with darunavir-ritonavir (600/100 mg twice daily) for at least 4 weeks were included. Silymarin (150 mg every 8 h) was added to the antiretroviral treatment from days 1 to 14. Darunavir concentrations in plasma were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography immediately before and 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 h after a morning dose of darunavirritonavir on day 0 and darunavir-ritonavir plus silymarin on day 14. Individual darunavir pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by noncompartmental analysis and compared between days 0 and 14 by means of the geometric mean ratio (GMR) and its 90% confidence interval (CI). The median age was 48 years (interquartile range, 44 to 50 years), and the median body weight was 70 kg (interquartile range, 65 to 84 kg). Silymarin was well tolerated, and all participants completed the study. The GMRs for darunavir coadministered with silymarin relative to darunavir alone were 0.86 (90% CI, 0.70 to 1.05) for the area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 12 h, 0.83 (90% CI, 0.80 to 0.98) for the maximum concentration, and 0.94 (90% CI, 0.73 to 1.19) for the concentration at the end of the dosing interval. In summary, coadministration of silymarin with darunavirritonavir seems to be safe in HIV-infected patients; no dose adjustment for darunavir-ritonavir seems to be necessary. Copyright © 2012, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2837-2841
JournalAntimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2012

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