The evolution of valvular disease in antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is barely known. In order to evaluate whether the presence or absence of valvular disease at the time of diagnosis of APS, assessed by an initial echocardiogram, predicts its subsequent evolution, we performed a prospective cohort study. We included 53 patients with APS. An initial transthoracic echocardiogram was performed on patients at the time of diagnosis of APS. Serial echocardiograms were conducted along a 12-year follow-up. Final echocardiograms were used for comparative purposes. We started with 29 patients (54%) with and 24 (45%) without valvulopathy at initial echo. At the final echocardiogram, 27 of 29 patients with initial valvulopathy continued to have valvular disease (a 93% observed likelihood), and 22 of 24 patients without initial valvulopathy demonstrated an absence of valvular disease (a 91% observed likelihood). Patients with valvulopathy in comparison with those without presented more arterial thrombotic events (69% vs. 20%, P < 0.001), atherosclerotic risk factors (62% vs. 29%, P = 0.01), livedo (48% vs. 16%, P = 0.01) and migraine (41% vs. 12%, P = 0.02). We have identified two subtypes of APS patients with and without valvulopathy by defining differential clinical features and with little crossover in valvular involvement over a long follow-up period, giving a high prognostic value to the initial echocardiographic assessment. © The Author(s), 2010.
- Antiphospholipid syndrome
- Cardiovascular disease