In the present study, we investigated whether binge/purge eating disorders (ED) and pathological gambling (PG) in males can be differentiated by means of weight history and temperament and character traits. We investigated 43 male ED patients, 46 pathological gamblers and 46 healthy controls (HC) by means of lifetime weight information and the Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R). The MANCOVA results showed that ED patients showed significantly more lifetime weight fluctuations compared with PG and HC after controlling for age. Additionally, both ED and PG patients showed significantly higher scores on Harm Avoidance and lower Self-Directedness compared with HC. Results of a multinomial logistic regression showed that ED versus HC membership was determined by more weight fluctuations and lower Self-Directedness; whereas ED versus PG membership was determined by more weight fluctuations. Finally, PG versus HC membership was characterized by more Harm Avoidance, Novelty Seeking, and Persistence, and less Self-directedness. Given that both patient groups were characterized by low levels of Self-Directedness (i.e., low levels of effortful or executive control), they can benefit from training in self-regulation; and in PG patients special attention needs to be given on the training of behavioral control in the presence of novel and rewarding stimuli. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.