Early and intermediate age-related macular degeneration: Update and clinical review

Alfredo García-Layana, Francisco Cabrera-López, José García-Arumí, Lluís Arias-Barquet, José M. Ruiz-Moreno

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

39 Citations (Scopus)


© 2017 García-Layana et al. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of irreversible central vision loss in developed countries. With the aging of population, AMD will become globally an increasingly important and prevalent disease worldwide. It is a complex disease whose etiology is associated with both genetic and environmental risk factors. An extensive decline in the quality of life and progressive need of daily living assistance resulting from AMD among those most severely affected highlights the essential role of preventive strategies, particularly advising patients to quit smoking. In addition, maintaining a healthy diet, controlling other risk factors (such as hypertension, obesity, and atherosclerosis), and the use of nutritional supplements (antioxidants) are recommendable. Genetic testing may be especially important in patients with a family history of AMD. Recently, unifying criteria for the clinical classification of AMD, defining no apparent aging changes; normal aging changes; and early, intermediate, and late AMD stages, are of value in predicting AMD risk of progression and in establishing recommendations for the diagnosis, therapeutic approach, and follow-up of patients. The present review is focused on early and intermediate AMD and presents a description of the clinical characteristics and ophthalmological findings for these stages, together with algorithms for the diagnosis and management of patients, which are easily applicable in daily clinical practice.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1579-1587
JournalClinical Interventions in Aging
Publication statusPublished - 3 Oct 2017


  • Age-related macular degeneration
  • Classification
  • Early AMD
  • Intermediate AMD
  • Nutritional supplementation
  • Prevention
  • Risk factors


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