Drugs plus ligation to prevent rebleeding in cirrhosis: An updated systematic review

Angela Puente, Virginia Hernández-Gea, Isabel Graupera, Marta Roque, Alan Colomo, Maria Poca, Carles Aracil, Ignasi Gich, Carlos Guarner, Càndid Villanueva

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleResearchpeer-review

78 Citations (Scopus)


Background & Aims: Combined therapy with endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL) and β-blockers ± isosorbide mononitrate (ISMN) is currently recommended to prevent variceal rebleeding. However, the role of this combined therapy has been challenged by some studies. We performed a systematic review to assess the value of combined therapy with EVL and β-blockers ± ISMN as compared with each treatment alone to prevent rebleeding. Methods: Databases, references and meeting abstracts were searched to retrieve randomized trials comparing combined therapy with EVL and β-blockers ± ISMN vs either treatment alone, to prevent variceal rebleeding in cirrhosis. Random-effects model was used for meta-analysis. Results: We identified five studies comparing EVL alone or combined with drugs, including a total of 476 patients. Combination therapy reduced overall rebleeding [risk ratios (RR) = 0.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.28-0.69], and showed a trend towards lower mortality (RR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.33-1.03), without increasing complications. We identified four trials comparing drugs alone or associated with EVL, including 409 patients. All used β-blockers plus ISMN. Variceal rebleeding decreased with combined therapy (P < 0.01) but rebleeding from oesophageal ulcers increased (P = 0.01). Overall, there was a trend towards lower rebleeding (RR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.58-1.00) without effect on mortality (RR = 1.24, 95% CI = 0.90-1.70). Conclusions: The addition of drug therapy to EVL improves the efficacy of EVL alone. However, the addition of EVL to β-blockers and ISMN achieves a non-significant decrease of rebleeding with no effect on mortality. Although combination therapy with EVL plus β-blockers ± ISMN is adequate to prevent rebleeding, β-blockers + ISMN alone may be a valid alternative. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S346 July 2014 10.1111/liv.12452 Review Article Review Articles © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)823-833
JournalLiver International
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2014


  • Combined therapy
  • Meta-analysis
  • Variceal ligation
  • Variceal rebleeding
  • β-blockers


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