© 2016, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Previous studies have reported that life satisfaction (LS) is positively associated with time perspective (TP) and mindfulness and that mindfulness may provide a holistic TP that integrates and helps to balance different time frames. However, studies performed to date have only been conducted in Eastern and Central Europe. Given the important cultural differences in time management between these regions and Mediterranean countries, the purpose of the present study was to replicate those studies to assess the association between mindfulness, TP, and LS in a sample of young adults living in the province of Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain). A total of 377 undergraduate university students (65.25% women) were recruited and completed the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI), and the Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS). Results show significant positive relationships between LS, mindfulness, and past positive, as well as negative associations between LS, past negative, and an unbalanced TP. Mindfulness also correlated inversely with an unbalanced TP. Regression analyses showed that 27% of variance in LS could be explained by the past negative and past positive ZTPI measures together with the MAAS. These results confirm the conclusions of previous studies conducted in culturally different populations and reinforce the hypothesis that mindfulness provides a holistic TP that intrinsically balances TP and increases LS. These findings suggest that a mindful attitude might be a key component of TP regulation that transcends different European cultural backgrounds.
- Life satisfaction
- Time perspective