© 2016 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Objectives To ascertain whether screening for pre-eclampsia (PE) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) by uterine artery (UtA) Doppler in the second trimester of pregnancy and targeted surveillance improve maternal and perinatal outcomes in an unselected population. Methods This was a multicenter randomized open-label controlled trial. At the routine second-trimester anomaly scan, women were assigned randomly to UtA Doppler or non-Doppler groups. Women with abnormal UtA Doppler were offered intensive surveillance at high-risk clinics of the participating centers with visits every 4 weeks that included measurement of maternal blood pressure, dipstick proteinuria, fetal growth and Doppler examination. The primary outcome was a composite score for perinatal complications, defined as the presence of any of the following: PE, IUGR, spontaneous labor < 37 weeks' gestation, placental abruption, stillbirth, gestational hypertension, admission to neonatal intensive care unit and neonatal complications. Secondary outcomes were a composite score for maternal complications (disseminated intravascular coagulation, maternal mortality, postpartum hemorrhage, pulmonary edema, pulmonary embolism, sepsis), and medical interventions (for example, corticosteroid administration and induction of labor) in patients developing placenta-related complications. Results In total, 11 667 women were included in the study. Overall, PE occurred in 348 (3.0%) cases, early-onset PE in 48 (0.4%), IUGR in 722 (6.2%), early-onset IUGR in 93 (0.8%) and early-onset PE with IUGR in 32 (0.3%). UtA mean pulsatility index > 90th percentile was able to detect 59% of early-onset PE and 60% of early-onset IUGR with a false-positive rate of 11.1%. When perinatal and maternal data according to assigned group (UtA Doppler vs non-Doppler) were compared, no differences were found in perinatal or maternal complications. However, screened patients had more medical interventions, such as corticosteroid administration (relative risk (RR), 1.79 (95% CI, 1.4-2.3)) and induction of labor for IUGR (RR, 1.36 (95% CI, 1.07-1.72)). In women developing PE or IUGR, there was a trend towards fewer maternal complications (RR, 0.46 (95% CI, 0.19-1.11)). Conclusions Routine second-trimester UtA Doppler ultrasound in an unselected population identifies approximately 60% of women at risk for placental complications; however, application of this screening test failed to improve short-term maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality.
- Intrauterine growth restriction
- Perinatal outcome
- Second trimester
- Uterine artery Doppler