Predatory bacteria that attack Chromatiaceae (purple sulfur bacteria) recovered from Lake Cisó (a mostly anaerobic holomictic lake) have been studied over two annual cycles. During the mixing period the lake was completely anaerobic; both predator and prey populations were found along the water column, and even at the surface. Throughout the stratification period maximum Chromatiaceae occurred between a depth of 1 and 3 m depth. The maximum numbers of predators and prey (Chromatiaceae) also occurred in this range. A collapse took place in the lake during the second annual cycle in 1986. It brought about changes in the physicochemical parameters of the lake, thus altering the population dynamics. Nevertheless, during both cycles the number of predatory bacteria was maximum immediately below the depth at which the maximum number of prey bacteria occurred. © 1992 Springer-Verlag.