Because of their savoury meat, various species of sea bream are cultured worldwide. Among Sparidae, the gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata has been a favorite for Mediterranean aquaculture, while the red sea bream Pagrus major and the black sea bream Acanthopagrus schlegelii are the main species farmed in the Far East. Good growth performances have been obtained with several other sparids as well. Everywhere, in the generally suboptimal conditions of intensive culture systems, the danger of disease outbreaks is always present. Since quarantine restrictions, especially in the past, were rarely adopted, certain pathogens have traveled considerable geographic distances, and often found ideal conditions for proliferation in naive hosts or new environments. As the primary health problems in sparids still relate to infectious agents, this chapter reviews the most recurrent viruses (Lymphocystis, red sea bream Iridovirus, Viral Encephalopathy and Retinopathy), bacteria (Vibrio spp., Photobacterium damselae ssp. piscicida and ssp. damselae, Pseudomonas anguilliseptica, Tenacibaculum maritimum, Streptococcus spp., Mycobacterium spp., Epitheliocystis), fungi (Ichthyophonus, Ochroconis), protistan ectoparasites (Amyloodinium ocellatum, Trichodina spp., Brooklynella hostilis, Cryptocaryon irritans, Scuticociliates), Myxozoan, Microsporidian, Apicomplexan organisms, Monogenean and Digenean helminths, Crustacean parasites. All the above are typical of Sparidae, but only a few are exclusive to this family of fishes. The species cultured and the methods used influence greatly the type and severity of the disease. For each pathogen, a short description is given of its biology, species of Sparid affected and geographic location from which the disease was reported. Whenever possible, suggestions for treatment are offered. A warning is given about the zoonotic potential of a small number of pathogens. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
|Title of host publication||Sparidae: Biology and Aquaculture of Gilthead Sea Bream and other Species|
|Number of pages||36|
|Publication status||Published - 18 Feb 2011|
- Fish treatments
- Infectious agents
- Sparid diseases