Differential body composition effects of protease inhibitors recommended for initial treatment of HIV infection: A randomized clinical trial

Esteban Martinez, Ana Gonzalez-Cordon, Elena Ferrer, Pere Domingo, Eugenia Negredo, Felix Gutierrez, Joaquin Portilla, Adrià Curran, Daniel Podzamczer, Esteban Ribera, Javier Murillas, Jose I. Bernardino, Ignacio Santos, Jose A. Carton, Joaquim Peraire, Judit Pich, Ramon Deulofeu, Ignacio Perez, Jose M. Gatell, J. A. ArnaizH. Beleta, D. Garcia, A. Pejenaute, N. Ramos, P. Arcaina, L. Giner, S. Moya, M. Pampliega, G. Barrera, N. Rozas, M. Saumoy, V. Asensi, A. González-Cordón, I. Pérez, E. Martínez, M. Masiá, S. Padilla, J. R. Ramos, C. Robledano, F. Gutiérrez, J. Puig, J. R. Arribas, J. M. Castro, J. Sanz, M. Cairó, P. Velli, D. Dalmau, A. Lamas, P. Martí-Belda, F. Dronda, J. R. Blanco, M. Gutierrez, M. G. Mateo, E. Losada, A. Prieto, A. Antela, A. Aguilar, M. Vargas, C. Viladés, M. Crespo

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© The Author 2014. Background. It is unclear whether metabolic or body composition effects differ between protease inhibitorbased regimens recommended for initial treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Methods. ATADAR is a phase 4, open-label, multicenter, randomized clinical trial. Stable antiretroviral-naive HIV-infected adults were randomly assigned to atazanavir/ritonavir 300/100 mg or darunavir/ritonavir 800/100 mg in combination with tenofovir/emtricitabine daily. Predefined endpoints were treatment or virological failure, drug discontinuation due to adverse effects, and laboratory and body composition changes at 96 weeks. Results. At 96 weeks, 56 (62%) atazanavir/ritonavir and 62 (71%) darunavir/ritonavir patients remained free of treatment failure (estimated difference 8.2%; 95% confidence interval [CI], -.6 to 21.6) and 71 (79%) atazanavir/ ritonavir and 75 (85%) darunavir/ritonavir patients remained free of virological failure (estimated difference 6.3%; 95% CI, -.5 to 17.6). Seven patients discontinued atazanavir/ritonavir and 5 discontinued darunavir/ritonavir due to adverse effects. Total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol similarly increased in both arms, but there was a greater increase in triglycerides in the atazanavir/ritonavir arm. At 96 weeks, body fat (estimated difference 2862.2 gr; 95% CI, 726.7 to 4997.7; P = .0090), limb fat (estimated difference 1403.3 gr; 95% CI, 388.4 to 2418.2; P = .0071), and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (estimated difference 28.4 cm2; 95% CI, 1.9 to 55.0; P = .0362) increased more in the atazanavir/ritonavir arm than in darunavir/ritonavir arm. Body fat changes in the atazanavir/ritonavir arm were associated with higher insulin resistance. Conclusions. We found no major differences between atazanavir/ritonavir and darunavir/ritonavir in efficacy, clinically relevant side effects, or plasma cholesterol fractions. However, atazanavir/ritonavir led to higher triglycerides and more total and subcutaneous fat than darunavir/ritonavir. Also, fat gains with atazanavir/ritonavir were associated with insulin resistance. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT01274780.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)811-820
JournalClinical Infectious Diseases
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2015


  • Antiretroviral therapy
  • Body composition
  • HIV protease inhibitors
  • Plasma lipids


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