A relationship between aluminum (Al) toxicity, endocytosis, endosomes and vesicle recycling in the root transition zone has recently been demonstrated. Here the importance of fi lamentous actin (F-actin)-based vesicle traffi cking for Al tolerance has been investigating in maize varieties differing in their Al sensitivities. More Al was internalized into root tip cells of the Al-sensitive variety 16 36 than in the Al-tolerant variety Cateto. The actin cytoskeleton and vesicle traffi cking were primary targets for Al toxicity in the root tips of the sensitive variety. Visualization of boron-cross-linked rhamnogalacturonan II (RGII)-containing brefeldin A (BFA) compartments revealed that Al inhibited the formation of these compartments, especially in variety 16 36. The time sequence of Al effects on pectin recycling matches the growth effects of Al in this sensitive variety. These results support the hypothesis that Al binding to pectin-rich cell walls can contribute to reversible inhibition of root elongation. Al-induced alterations on F-actin were most evident in the central part of the transition zone of Al-sensitive 16 36, where Al was localized inside the nucleoli. In relation to this observation, a role for symplastic Al in both irreversible growth inhibition and amelioration of BFA-induced inhibition of root elongation is discussed.
- Brefeldin A
- Vesicle trafficking