© 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. A new cucullanid, Dichelyne (Cucullanellus) romani n. sp. (Nematoda: Cucullanidae), is described from the digestive tract of two notacanthid fishes, Notacanthus chemnitzii Bloch and N. bonaparte Risso (Notacanthiformes: Notacanthidae), from the Northeast Atlantic and Western Mediterranean. The presence of a precloacal sucker and ten pairs of caudal papillae in males allocates it to the subgenus Cucullanellus Törnquist, 1931. The new species differs from other members of this subgenus in its larger body size, smaller spicule/body length ratio, the distribution of caudal papillae, and the position of deirids and excretory pore. Both notacanthid fishes act as definitive hosts with slightly larger nematode specimens detected in N. chemnitzii. A wide intraspecific variability was found in the distribution of caudal papillae, and in some specimens the position of deirids, excretory pore and length of intestinal caecum also varied. A complete list of all assigned species of the subgenus Cucullanellus is presented and discussed as there are several uncertainties regarding the validity and synonymy of some species. This is the first species of Dichelyne Jägerskiöld, 1902 in a notacanthid fish and one of the only two records in deep-sea fish species.