Diagnosis and treatment of congenital hydrocephalus in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) with seizures

Marcos Raposo Galvan, Sonia Añor Torres, Judit Verdes Martinez, Vicente Soler, Jaime Miguel Martorell Monserrat

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A 2-year-old male red fox (Vulpes vulpes) was presented for generalised tonic-clonic seizures, blindness, compulsive circling and behavioural changes that occurred since the animal was 2 months old. Neurological examination indicated a diffuse forebrain lesion. On magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, a severe dilation of both lateral ventricles was identified. Congenital hydrocephalus was suspected and the fox was treated with methylprednisolone, omeprazole and phenobarbital. Sixteen months later, the neurological signs had improved: the frequency of seizures had decreased to one seizure every 3 months and compulsive circling was less pronounced.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere310
Number of pages4
JournalVeterinary Record Case Reports
Issue number2
Early online date8 Feb 2022
Publication statusPublished - 8 Feb 2022


  • DOGS
  • MRI
  • red fox
  • seizures

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