Artificial selection is one of the major forces modifying the genetic composition of livestock populations. Identifying genes under selection could be useful to elucidate their impact on phenotypic variation. We aimed to identify genomic regions targeted by selection for dairy and pigmentation traits in Murciano-Granadina goats. Performance of a selection scan based on the integrated haplotype score test in a population of 1183 Murciano-Granadina goats resulted in the identification of 77 candidate genomic regions/SNPs. The most significant selective sweeps mapped to chromosomes 1 (69.86 Mb), 4 (41.80-49.95 Mb), 11 (65.74 Mb), 12 (31.24 and 52.51 Mb), 17 (34.76-37.67 Mb), 22 (31.75 Mb), and 26 (26.69-31.05 Mb). By using previously generated RNA-Seq data, we built a catalogue of 6414 genes that are differentially expressed across goat lactation (i.e. 78 days post-partum, early lactation; 216 days post-partum, late lactation; 285 days post-partum, dry period). Interestingly, 183 of these genes mapped to selective sweeps and several of them display functions related with lipid, protein, and carbohydrate metabolism, insulin signaling, cell proliferation, as well as mammary development and involution. Of particular interest are the CSN3 and CSN1S2 genes, which encode two major milk proteins. Additionally, we found three pigmentation genes (GLI3, MC1R, and MITF) co-localizing with selective sweeps. Performance of a genome-wide association study and Sanger sequencing and TaqMan genotyping experiments revealed that the c.801C>G (p.Cys267Trp) polymorphism in the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene is the main determinant of the black (GG or GC genotypes) and brown (CC genotypes) colorations of Murciano-Granadina goats.
- Genetic Association Studies/veterinary
- Genetics, Population
- Milk Proteins/genetics
- Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
- Selection, Genetic