Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society. The Rab guanosine triphosphatase'activating protein (RabGAP) TBC1D1 has been shown to be a key regulator of glucose and lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle. Its function in pancreatic islets, however, is not yet fully understood. Here, we aimed to clarify the specific impact of TBC1D1 on insulin secretion and substrate use in pancreatic islets. We analyzed the dynamics of glucosestimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and lipid metabolism in isolated islets from Tbc1d1-deficient (D1KO) mice. To further investigate the underlying cellular mechanisms, we conducted pharmacological studies in these islets. In addition, we determined morphology and number of both pancreatic islets and insulin vesicles in b-cells using light and transmission electron microscopy. Isolated pancreatic islets from D1KO mice exhibited substantially increased GSIS compared with wild-type (WT) controls. This was attributed to both enhanced first and second phase of insulin secretion, and this enhanced secretion persisted during repetitive glucose stimuli. Studies with sulfonylureas or KCl in isolated islets demonstrated that TBC1D1 exerts its function via a signaling pathway at the level of membrane depolarization. In line, ultrastructural analysis of isolated pancreatic islets revealed both higher insulin-granule density and number of docked granules in b-cells from D1KO mice compared withWTcontrols. Like in skeletal muscle, lipid use in isolated islets was enhanced upon D1KO, presumably as a result of a higher mitochondrial fission rate and/or higher mitochondrial activity. Our results clearly demonstrate a dual role of TBC1D1 in controlling substrate metabolism of the pancreatic islet.