Degradation of the drug sodium diclofenac by Trametes versicolor pellets and identification of some intermediates by NMR

Ernest Marco-Urrea, Miriam Pérez-Trujillo, Carles Cruz-Morató, Gloria Caminal, Teresa Vicent

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    133 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Degradation of diclofenac sodium, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug widely found in the aquatic environment, was assessed using the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor. Almost complete diclofenac removal (≥94%) occurred the first hour with T. versicolor pellets when the drug was added at relatively high (10 mg L-1) and environmentally relevant low (45 μg L-1) concentrations in a defined liquid medium. In vivo and in vitro experiments using the cytochrome P450 inhibitor 1-aminobenzotriazole and purified laccase, respectively, suggested at least two different mechanisms employed by T. versicolor to initiate diclofenac degradation. Two hydroxylated metabolites, 4′-hydroxydiclofenac and 5-hydroxydiclofenac, were structurally elucidated by nuclear magnetic resonance as degradation intermediates in fungal cultures spiked with diclofenac. Both parent compound and intermediates disappeared after 24 h leading to a decrease in ecotoxicity calculated by the Microtox test. Laccase-catalyzed transformation of diclofenac led to the formation of 4-(2,6-dichlorophenylamino)-1,3-benzenedimethanol, which was not detected in in vivo experiments probably due to the low laccase activity levels observed through the first hours of incubation. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)836-842
    JournalJournal of Hazardous Materials
    Volume176
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 15 Apr 2010

    Keywords

    • Degradation
    • Diclofenac
    • Laccase
    • NMR
    • Trametes versicolor
    • White-rot fungus

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