Chronic inflammation is now widely recognized to play important roles in many commonly occurring diseases, including COVID-19. The resolution response to this chronic inflammation is an active process governed by specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs) like the lipid mediators known as lipoxins. The biosynthesis of lipoxins is catalyzed by several lipoxygenases (LOXs) from arachidonic acid. However, the molecular details of the mechanisms involved are not well known yet. In this paper, we have combined molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) calculations to analyze how reticulocyte 15-LOX-1 catalyzes the production of lipoxins from 5(S),15(S)-diHpETE. Our results indicate that the dehydration mechanism from 5(S),15(S)-diHpETE, via the formation of an epoxide, presents huge energy barriers even though it was one of the two a priori synthetic proposals. This result is compatible with the fact that no epoxide has been directly detected as an intermediate in the catalytic formation of lipoxins from 5(S),15(S)-diHpETE. Conversely, the oxygenation of 5(S),15(S)-diHpETE at C14 is feasible because there is an open channel connecting the protein surface with this carbon atom, and the energy barrier for oxygen addition through this channel is small. The analysis of the following steps of this mechanism, leading to the corresponding hydroperoxide at the 15-LOX-1 active site, indicates that the oxygenation mechanism will lead to the formation of lipoxinB4 after the final action of a reductase. In contrast, our calculations are in agreement with experiments that lipoxinA4 cannot derive from 5(S),15(S)-diHpETE by either of the two proposed mechanisms and that 5(S),15(S)-diHETE is not an intermediate of lipoxin biosynthesis catalyzed by 15-LOX-1.
|Number of pages||13|
|Journal||Journal of Physical Chemistry B|
|Publication status||Published - 17 Dec 2020|