In vitro cytokine profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from pigs with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) and healthy pigs were determined in response to recall viral antigens (porcine circovirus type 2; PCV2), mitogens (phytohaemagglutinin) or superantigens (staphylococcal enterotoxin B). PBMC from PMWS-affected pigs, in contrast to those from healthy pigs, responded to recall PCV2 antigen by releasing IL-10 and IFN-γ, but they were less able or even unable to produce IL-4, IL-2 or IFN-γ upon challenge with mitogen or superantigen. Moreover, only PCV2 had the ability to downregulate or suppress the release of IL-4 and IL-2 from PBMC from both healthy and diseased animals, and to stimulate the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-8). In conclusion, the immune system cells of PMWS pigs have a diminished ability to perform their immunological functions upon viral or immunostimulatory molecules. In addition, PCV2 can alter the functionality of PBMC in both healthy and PMWS pig.