Cytokine induction by the effect of electronegative LDL on monocytes and lymphocytes

Cristina Bancells, José Luis Sánchez-Quesada, Jordi Ordóñez-Llanos, Sònia Benítez

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Introduction and objective. Electronegative low-density lipoprotein (LDL(-)) is a minor modified LDL fraction present in plasma with atherogenic and inflammatory properties. In cultured endothelial cells, LDL(-) has been reported to induce production of several mediators of inflammation, as well as apoptosis and/or cytotoxicity. However, the effect of LDL(-) on other cell types, such as white blood cells-with which its interaction is more feasible during plasma circulation- has not previously been evaluated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to analyze the cytokines, growth factors and other proinflammatory molecules involved in the atherosclerotic process that are induced by LDL(-) in monocytes and lymphocytes isolated from peripheral blood. Material and methods. Total LDL was isolated by ultracentrifugation and electropositive (LDL(+) or native LDL) and electronegative fractions were separated by anion-exchange chromatography. Monocytes and lymphocytes isolated from normolipemic volunteers were incubated with LDLs for 20 h; lipopolysaccharide was used as positive control. The production of 42 inflammatory mediators related to atherosclerosis was determined in cell supernatants by protein array. Induced proteins were quantified by ELISA assays. The question of whether induction was transcriptional was determined by real time-polymerase chain reaction. Results and conclusion. LDL(-) induced greater release and expression of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10, MCP-1, GROβ and GROγ than did LDL(+) in monocytes and lymphocytes. Therefore, in mononuclear cells, LDL(-) is able to induce production of several factors involved in the inflammatory process that act on different stages of the atherosclerotic lesion.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)13-21
JournalClinica e Investigacion en Arteriosclerosis
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2007


  • Cytokines
  • Electronegative LDL
  • Inflammation
  • Lymphocytes
  • Monocytes


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